You must have been tired listening to doctors mentioning do some exercises …… but not many go into details of how to exercise, which exercises to do, how frequently one is to exercise or about the intensity. The important thing is to get started in case you have not. Any small step is better than no step at all.
Before embarking on a fitness program, especially if you have never done exercises regularly, get a medical checkup done by the doctor which will include an assessment of the heart as well. Though exercises are beneficial, they can cause problems for some with certain problems like eye, kidney, joint, nerve or heart problems.
If all is okay, assess how fit you are by these simple steps:
Check pulse rate before and immediately after walking 1. 6 km or a mile. The pulse rate should not be racing away. The time taken for the heart rate to come back to normal level before you started walking is equally important.
How long does it take you to walk a mile or run 2.41 km or 1.5 miles.
Body mass index
Once you have assessed how fit you are, then design a plan:
Define the need for the exercise plan- to don dresses that had been in the shelves for long, to look and feel good, for weight reduction, to do a marathon or to look good at a function.
The activity must be of at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity a week
Include different activities so you do not get bored. You can walk, cycle, jog, do water exercises, skip the rope, do the hula hoop, aerobics, zumba dance and so forth.
Remember to start slow and progress slowly.
Stretching before exercises is very important.
Allow time for recovery.
You need not do all the activities at one go. You can conveniently space them out in intervals.
Be flexible. Do not punish your body.
Now that all is set, get the right footwear , get the right apparel, use a fitness app in your smartphone or use a fitness watch. The apps in the smartphone now-a-days gets one to be motivated to carry on.
Keep a diary to record the progress you made.
Reassess yourself every month.
Set new goals
Push outside your comfort zone as the body gets adjusted to the exercise quite soon and you will notice that the body needs to be pushed further to achieve more.
Do “listen” to your body. If weak or paining, do give a break and make sure all is okay. The injuries related to exercise too had been detailed in an earlier newsletter.
It is a welcome change in the climate after months of scorching heat in the middle East. This might last for a couple of months before the scorching heat picks up again. It is the time for outdoor partying, smell of inviting barbeques and probably increase in bad cholesterol levels !!!!! It is also the time for contracting viral fevers. Have you had your annual flu shot? The Flu Vaccine at least helps against many of the strains of virus which are getting more complex with each passing year.
Losing weight is something the doctor always stresses on. Interestingly, you might notice that the males are generally reluctant to address the obesity as well as their female counterparts. Moreover, weight loss is slower among those with diabetes due to the medicines they are on and also due to diabetic dysregulation. But , that cannot be used as an excuse for losing weight or even trying to.!!!! There is always a weight loss plateau that is to be expected and that should not deter yourself from continuing, but will need a self assessment as how to overcome the plateau.
Many now blame the cold weather and cold breeze and wish to remain cuddled under the blankets or remain indoors and try eating more to keep the body heat.
Impulsive eating can occur when stressed ( positive stress is during a vacation and negative stress during a personal tragedy) , when angry, when depressed or when worried about an upcoming event or even when stewing over a conflict at office or work. This often leads to impulsive eating followed by the guilt and again feeling low followed by eating again which gets you nowhere healthy !!!
Bed time snacking
People might keep on snacking to give them the so called energy while staying up awake while working late hours. There are certain occasions when you are allowed to snack especially when having an early light dinner and sleeping late. But, there are certain things to be known while snacking.
Warm milk contains tryptophan and helps in sleep
A bowl of cereal with milk or a glass of labaan( butter milk) , crackers or bread and cheese all can cause sleep due to the carbohydrate content.
Sources of hidden caffeine and fatty food such as burgers can impair with sleep.
Alcohol ( nightcap) might cause nightmares, frequent awakening, night sweats and headache for some which can impair with sleep. Drink plenty of water after the sleep.
Protein rich and high fat food will cause problems in digestion which can impair sleep.
Spicy food and smoking can impair with digestion.
So make healthy choices while snacking. Snack is just a small meal and not another meal.
The winter months are a cause for celebrations and family outings . The smell of barbeque fills the air after the sun sets. People might eat more of meat and prawns which might increase the cholesterol levels. You can however go a walk outside as the climate is much better than the hot humid summer climate.
Generally sugar levels and cholesterol levels rise with the increased food and alcohol consumption during the winter months.
You can safely exercise indoors if the weather outside is not to your liking. Tai Chi, Pilates, using the Hula Hoop, dancing to music, yoga, skipping rope or just spot jumping helps burn calories. Zumba or kick boxing are options that needs a trainer to help you out. For the fitness freaks who like to sweat it out in a gym, try something new at the gym or use resistance bands. You can swim or do any exercise in the pool as water is kind to the joints. Aqua aerobics is catching up in a big way as it is entertaining and kind on the joints as well. One can enjoy shopping by walking in the malls and doing window shopping !!!! Walking is still a good exercise. Take care of your footwear and use proper clothing if walking outdoors. Cover your head and neck if very chilly. The new form of play station using the X box helps you engage in interactive games and helps you combine entertainment with exercise and it can be enjoyable when performed with either family of friends.
For those who are interested in resistance training using small weights, remember to always warm up, stretch and do repetitions of ten to twelve in a smooth controlled motion. The muscles might ache at the beginning, Give a rest in a between and try these on alternate days to help the muscles to recover.
How to overcome barriers to exercise?
Break the times of exercise to smaller periods if it not practical to spend 30 minutes a day for five days a week.
Identify causes of waste of time such as watching the television, lying on the sofa. See if these can be overcome.
Reframe the concept of exercise such as walking the dog or taking the kids for playing, playing ball on the beach or even dancing, walking in a mall, walking around a large airport terminal while waiting for the flight.
Join a group who can motivate you.
Watch the television or listen to music while exercising.
Take stairs instead of the lift or escalators.
When ill, do not exercise.
There are numerous apps which can be downloaded from the app store if you have a smartphone. These can monitor the progress and can even motivate you to get moving.
Ask yourself why you want to lose weight:
Feel comfortable in clothes
Improve self image and confidence
Improve physical stamina
Improve energy levels
Be a role model for my family
Improve the blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes
Reduce joint pain
Improve life expectancy
You might want to add more…..such as want to look good at a function or don those clothes which you outsized and so on…..
Write down the challenges and obstacles you face towards achieving the goals. The more honest you are with yourself, both in recognizing the obstacles and coming up with realistic strategies, greater are your chances at succeeding. Let that be your New Year resolution.
Treadmill is the commonest equipment bought for the home gym and is also one of the commonest equipment used if one frequents the gym. It is often believed that the cardio exercises such as running, jogging or cycling help lose weight and also to keep one fit. But, it is worthwhile to note that the low intensity exercises help the body to adapt over a period of time thereby losing its efficiency at reducing the calories burned per minute.
Most of the people buy the treadmill and it soon becomes a dread mill- some use it as a storage space for books and other commodities. Some use the treadmill as a stand for hanging clothes.
There are, however, some points to ponder before buying one.
The advantages of a treadmill:
Can exercise indoors despite adverse climate
The smooth cushioned belt is kinder to the joints than when running on hard surfaces outside.
Those who have no baby sitter or those who cannot leave home can benefit having this at home.
This can be folded and kept aside if space is being compromised.
Can listen to audio or see videos while on the treadmill.
The programmable workout can be done to make the treadmill more interesting
Can be monotonous
The force of impact while stamping on the belt can cause injuries or pain to the knee, ankle or hip joints for some.
While running or walking outside, the muscles make small adjustments to improve the co-ordination and balance which is not there while on the treadmill.
While walking or running outside, the hamstring muscles ( muscles of the back of thigh and calf) help to propel the body forward. This does not take place while on the treadmill as the machine pulls the body forward.
There is no wind resistance which can be encountered while exercising outdoors.
There is nothing to match the downhill running on treadmill. While running downhill, there has to be a good co-ordination between the muscles of the front of thighs and lower leg muscles.
Can fall off the treadmill with injuries if not concentrating while on the treadmill
Adequate footwear is essential as the footwear can wear and tear easily due to the friction.
Cannot enjoy the sights outside, no fresh air and also change in pace is not possible.
Points to ponder while buying one:
There are two types- manual and motorized type. The manual needs one to use force to start it moving and some need even an inclination, but once it gets moving, the inclination cannot be adjusted unless you come off the machine. The manual one costs lesser than the motorized one.
Stand on the belt and see if there is any jerky movement or instability of the base of the machine
Look for a continuous duty rating of > 1.5 HP
The belt size must be at least 48” long and 16” wide.
The control panel must be easily accessible
There must be an emergency stop button which can be used if there is a mishap.
Look for the programmable versions available where the pace and inclination can be adjusted.
Addition of audio and video plug ins cost more
Water bottle holders are another option.
Look for the warranty period
If any other person besides you are planning on using the machine, please buy the high end machine. Those who are heavily built need a better machine.
Regular servicing or maintenance is needed.
Before using the treadmill, do the following:
Proper attire including good shoes
Make sure you are fit to undergo the exercise. If a first timer, make sure the doctor clears you of any heart, eye, kidney or nerve problems. If having back pain, ask the doctor before starting the treadmill.
Make sure the sugar levels are not too high or too low. Correct the sugar levels before the exercise.
Carry with you an ID card mentioning you are diabetic. Have fast acting carbs with you. Carry either orange juice or water which can be had midway between a heavy work out if the duration lasts more than an hour. If you feel dizzy or complain of difficulty breathing, do consult a doctor before continuing.
Adequate warm up is essential, start slow and then build up the pace or inclination and also stop slowly. Do not suddenly stop unless it is an emergency.
Leave a space behind while on the belt, it is safer you have some space behind in case you slip.
Hold on to the side railings while using an inclination or losing balance.
Swing arms if possible as in natural walking.
The short bursts of fast pace followed by slow pace improve the fitness levels as well do not exhaust the body.
From time immemorial, man has been walking for traveling to reach one place, to hunt and gather food for self and family and also in search of a better place to live. Those were the days when there was no transport. God gave humans the legs so they could walk upright which is a feature not common among the animals by nature, though some animals can walk upright with training. Unfortunately, with the advent of modern transportation facilities as well as time pressures and deadlines to be met, people have literally forgotten to use their legs for the use they were meant to be used.
Benefits of walking
This is probably the safest form of exercise which can be done by anybody provided the eyesight is good and there is no neuropathy ( affection of the nerves which can cause lack of sensation on the feet making the person unaware of where the feet are planted on the ground).
The farther, faster and more frequently one walks can definitely improve the benefits by many folds. Walking also improves the balance and strengthens bones and muscles besides improving circulation.
Walking is proven to prevent the onset of diabetes, depression, cancer, joint problems, osteoporosis ( fragile bones) and heart ailments. This also helps the worsening of the above. The swinging action of the arms, the strides taken while walking, the fresh air , the sights to enjoy ( one does not get these benefits while walking the treadmill in the confines of either the gymnasium or home) and change in pace while walking navigating the turns all help in improving the muscle power and co-ordination.
Walking in groups with either your colleagues or with friends and family all could be entertaining as well you could even do long distances without being aware of the distance covered at all.
Walking at a speed of 6 km/hour , which amounts to a brisk walk, can burn up to 600 Kcals. But, may be not all can walk as fast. Some may be having either knee or back problems which needs a slower pace. But walking at any given speeds whether unaided or with the help of a walking stick is much better than not walking at all. Parking the car away from where you wish to go and just walking to your destination helps. You may still park close to your destination ( especially during the summer time when the heat maybe quite strong) and take a longer route rather than choosing the shortest route or just walking along the aisles in the malls are good options.
Walking with small children and pets is also a good option.
Ensure the following before walking:
• Check the blood sugar before walking.
• Ask your health care provider if it is safe to embark on a regime.
• Go at a pace comfortable. Walking should not leave one gasping for breath.
• It is okay to rest in between.
• It is okay to take sips of water in between the walk and before the walk.
• If you experience feeling of nausea, chest discomfort, pain in the arms, jaw or back while walking, please seek medical help immediately.
Stretching before any exercise program:
Proper stretching before any exercise or even walking can help tone up the body and prevent joint problems.
Some of the commonly done stretches:
• Calf stretches-
Stand at an arms length distance from the wall. Keep one leg forward with knees slightly bent. The other leg with knee straight and heel down. Keeping back straight, move hips towards the wall and feel the stretch. Hold for 30 seconds, relax and repeat with other leg.
• Quadriceps stretch-
While supporting a fixed structure, grasp the ankle with one hand and pull the heel up and down till one feels the stretch in the front of the thighs. Hold for 30 seconds, relax and then repeat with other side.
• Hamstrings stretch-
Sit on one chair, and keep the other leg on another chair in front. Keeping the back straight, bend the pelvis forward till a stretch is felt in the back of the thighs.
• Low back stretch- lying on the back with the feet kept flat and knees bent, bend the knees ( both together or separately) towards the chest using both hands. If one has knee problems, one can hold hands behind the thighs instead.
• Chest stretches-
Clasp hands behind the head. Pull elbows gently by pinching the shoulder blades together.
How to walk?
The ideal way of walking involves walking upright, head held up eyes looking forward, chest pulled out, shoulders thrown back, landing the feet on the heel and taking the stride on their toes. Swing the arms freely slightly bent at the elbows. Walking with small weights held in the hands further enhance the calories burned.
The neck, shoulder and back must be relaxed and not stiff. While walking the treadmill one usually does not maintain these as people have to be holding onto the side railings and the back is usually arched back and stiff to prevent slipping.
Please make sure the footwear is of a good quality and have the insoles and heels checked for wear and tear. View the shoes from behind. If the shoe is tilted to one side, it is time to change the shoes. Change the shoes after it has done 400-600 km.
One should dress appropriately in attire that suits the climate, a comfortable and well padded pair of shoes, a scarf or hat as the case may be and some music if needed to be played and listened with an ear phone if needed. Generally the pavements are safe, but it still pays to look ahead and down as well.
150 minutes of any exercise a week is recommended. You can do 30 minutes 5 days a week or split that every day in some form like three sessions of ten minutes each or two sessions of fifteen minutes each.
The long term goal is to make 10000 steps a day. This is ideal for maintaining good health.
One needs to walk at least 30 minutes a day to maintain his or her weight and at least 45 minutes a day to have some weight reduction.
A pedometer is a small device which can be clipped on to the belt or kept in your pocket close to your body. This will count the steps one takes during the course of your daily chores such as walking, climbing stairs, jogging and even adventure sports. But, pedometers vary in their function.
clipped on pedometer
Get to know your pedometer
Ease of use: Some of the pedometers just have to be clipped and it starts. These will be needed to be reset to zero the next day so you could count the number of steps taken.
All pedometers have a battery which needs to be replaced depending on the life.
Some pedometers need to have the data fed in such as date and time, the weight of the person, the length on ones stride which will be calculated and input fed in. The extra benefits: Some just give the number of steps taken during the day till one resets it back to zero. Other pedometers count the calories burned during the activity, the distance walked and some even upload the data to a remote computer which will maintain a log book of the progress. Accuracy: generally all pedometers are accurate. However change of strides such as a sudden increase in pace ( or decrease) , jogging in between or even climbing stairs in between the walk may not be counted by the machine( after all it is a machine) and so the calories counted may not be very accurate in that way.
Get a pedometer that has good back lighting so it could be easy to use both indoors and outdoors and also during either the day or night.
Some pedometers are small, others are big. Go for a size that suits you.
The pedometer must have a sturdy clip to help attach on the waistband or have a strap. Price is also of major concern.
The recent smartphones have an app which could be downloaded for performing the same function as that of a pedometer. Before you use the pedometer regularly the following are to be noted:
Please attach the pedometer on yourself for three days in succession whenever you are awake. The total number of steps covered in 3 days divided by three will give the average steps in a day. This is called the baseline steps. ( This will also give you an idea how many steps you had taken in a day which might be embarrassing)
Once you know the baseline steps, set up short term goals such as adding a thousand steps a day, for example, to your baseline number which you do target for a week.
Once you have achieved this short term goal, you could set yourself another goal. You could reward yourself and make this interesting.
Gout is an inflammatory disease affecting the joints , commonly the big toe of the foot, the mid foot or the ankle. This is caused by an increased level of uric acid in the blood. Purines break down inside the body to form uric acid. When there is too much of purine intake or when there is less of excretion of uric acid by the kidneys, it leads to an increase in the body.
A lot of people are affected by this and often are mistaken for having fractures and land up having X-rays taken. The pain is excruciating and can make life miserable to a point where common chores such as walking, standing, driving are so much limited.
Hyperuricemia ( high levels of uric acid) are associated with the following:
• Abdominal obesity
• Associated with diabetes mellitus type 2
• Associated with metabolic syndrome
• Joint destruction with recurrent attacks
• Stones in the urinary system- these cannot be seen in normal X-Rays as it does not block the X -rays. Uric acid stones are smooth rounded and so may not cause blood in urine.
• Generally males are affected more. Women after menopause can be affected.
Stages in Gout
• Hyperuricemia- high uric acid levels in blood.
• Precipitation of uric acid crystals in the joints ( commonly the base of the big toe, mid foot joints or ankle)
• Acute pain and swelling of the foot or joints. The skin may be reddened which is why it is often mistaken for an abscess.
• Chronic inflammation leading on to joint destruction and change in bone shape. This can lead to Tophi ( pronounced as TOE-fi)
What precipitates high uric acid levels? :
• Being exposed to very cold climate
• Binge drinking of alcohol
• Red wine in excess of 2 units/day
• Tea in excess of 4 cups a day ( whether green or black)
• Coffee in excess of 4 cups a day.
• Dark chocolate in excess
• Food such as mushrooms, asparagus, anchovies, moong beans, lentils, soya beans, white beans and raisins.
• Sea food such as mussels, lobster, shrimps or prawns, scallops, salmon and tuna.
• Rabbit meat, duck meat, turkey, chicken, Pork, salmon, beef and mutton.
• Some medicines for blood pressure, medicines taken for preventing rejection after organ transplant, those on cancer chemotherapy and low dose aspirin.
• Drastic weight loss measures.
• To vigorous an exercise regime
• Too much of sugar sweetened carbonated beverages
What are the gout friendly food items ?:
• Fruits such as apples, figs, bananas, pineapples, grapes, cherries, water melon, grape fruits, papaya, peaches, pears, guavas, lemon, orange, strawberries.
• Vegetables such as celery, egg plant, onion, lettuce, cabbage, cucumber, ginger
• Tofu, eggs, low fat dairy, sesame seeds, cereals, vitamin C, nut butter.
Beware the sugar content of some of the food items listed above. Interestingly, the high blood sugar levels can help in excretion of uric acid by the kidney. Thus, when the sugar levels improve, the uric acid levels can increase leading onto a flare. How to prevent gout:
• Adequate water or fluid intake
• Avoid the precipitating factors
• Consume the gout friendly food
• Maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent being overweight or obese.
• Avoid sugar sweetened beverages
How to treat:
• Meet the doctor.
• Ice cubes to be used for fomentation of the affected areas.
• Pain killers such as Indomethacin or Naproxen or Sulindac are preferred. However noted pain killers such as Ibuprofen ( Cataflam®) or diclofenac ( voltaren®) will not always be effective.
• Colchicine to be used within the first 24 hours of an attack helps.
• Oral Steroids ( prednisolone) in high doses can be used to reduce the inflammation. Some need an injection of steroids into the joints to relieve the pain.
• After the acute attack is subsided, allopurinol can be used to prevent the flares. Taking this during an acute attack may cause worsening of the attack.
• Sometimes Probenecid is advised by the doctor along with the other medicines to help in excretion of uric acid.
Eating less salt can substantially reduce the risk of health problems associated with high blood pressure, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke — a cause of death for more than 2 out of every 3 people with diabetes
Select fresh fruit or vegetables.
Avoid creamy soups .
Stay away from bread and rolls with salty, buttery crusts.
This is one area many are still unsure of. It is generally assumed cutting down the carbohydrate intake to as low as possible when one is a diabetic helps in control of diabetes.
” Gastronomic voyeurs have long proposed that eating is a holistic form of exercise involving various muscles necessary for scooping up the food, chewing it and getting the food to the mouth.”
Restaurants and supermarkets have taken marketing to whole new level. Terms such as biggies, jumbos, king size, grand,supreme and prompts such as all-you-can-eat -buffets and two-for-one -specials are enough to lure the unwary.
A good diet should contain 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 20% protein according to the American Diabetic association. One should aim for a weight loss of 5-7 % of the body weight. Most of the diets turn out to be failures as they are not practical or planned to give drastic results. Normally diabetics find it difficult to reduce weight and maintain weight loss when compared to a non diabetic. Some of the medicines taken for diabetes treatment also can cause weight gain.
Generally pregnant women and growing up children need more calories.
Culture or “habits” may have taught many of us to eat in response to any triggers such as stress, boredom, and guilt. We may multitask and eat and then wonder,” How on earth did I manage to eat that whole bag of chips or that large burger?”
Food , as a four letter word, is both a necessity as well as a burden when taken in excessive amounts. You must be familiar with the age old saying, “Eat to live and not live to eat”.
As one ages, the body weight may increase as you may be consuming more calories than needed. This coupled with the decreased physical activity and excuses such as “too tired from work”, “I just need to sleep for some time” ,” I shall grab a bite and then start”, and sink into the cozy sofa to seal the fate.
The daily need of calories depend on the following:
• The body size
• The age
• The height and weight.
• Level of activity
• Gender- whether male or female
• If pregnant.
Levels of activity
A person is labelled non active if the person is doing just normal activities such as going to work, shopping and going to school.
If the person does some physical activity such as walking for 2-4 kms daily or some form of exercise besides regular activity, the person is labelled moderately active.
If the person does heavy workouts like a gym workout, good games of squash, tennis or badminton or swimming, cycling, or walking more than 4 kms a day, the person is labelled very active.
One kilogram of body weight will equal 7700 calories. To reduce one kilogram over a week, one will have reduce 1100 calories daily. This may sound impossible. But, reducing the sugar intake by just one spoon daily can reduce the calorie intake by 500 calories. That is not a big burden, is it ?
The table given below will show the caloric needs based on age, gender and level of activity
If one observes the above table carefully, the calorie intake for both gender groups is maximum between the ages 18-25 . Thereafter the recommended caloric intake comes down to that of a 10-15 year old irrespective of your level of activity. Well, that is something to seriously think about.
A healthy breakfast will include whole grains, lean protein such as peanut butter, lean meat, fish, poultry and hard boiled eggs, low fat dairy such as yoghurt, cheese and milk and a portion of fruits and vegetables.
Know the food
Starches are bread, grains, cereal, pasta, and starchy vegetables like corn and potatoes. They provide carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Whole grain starches are healthier because they have more vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
Eat some starches at each meal. Eating starches is healthy for everyone, including people with diabetes.
Examples of starches are bread , pasta, corn, potatoes, rice, cereals, beans, lentils, yam
What are healthy ways to eat starches?
• Buy whole grain breads and cereals.
• Avoid fried and high-fat starches such as regular tortilla chips and potato chips, french fries, pastries, or biscuits. Try fat-free popcorn, baked or potato chips, baked potatoes, or low-fat muffins.
• Use low-fat or fat-free plain yogurt or fat-free sour cream instead of regular sour cream on a baked potato.
• Use mustard instead of mayonnaise on a sandwich.
• Use low-fat or fat-free substitutes such as low-fat mayonnaise or light margarine on bread, rolls, or toast.
• Eat cereal with fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) milk
Vegetables provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. They are low in carbohydrate. Examples of vegetables are lettuce , broccoli, vegetable juice, spinach, peppers, carrots, tomatoes, Celery, cabbage, greens. What are healthy ways to eat vegetables?
• Eat raw and cooked vegetables with little or no fat, sauces, or dressings.
• Try low-fat or fat-free salad dressing on raw vegetables or salads.
• Steam vegetables using water
• Mix in some chopped onion or garlic.
• Use a little vinegar or some lemon or lime juice.
• Add a small piece of lean ham or smoked turkey instead of fat to vegetables when cooking.
• Sprinkle with herbs and spices.
If you do use a small amount of fat, use canola oil, olive oil, or soft margarines (liquid or tub types) instead of fat from meat, butter, or shortening.
There are two types of vegetables- the starchy and non starchy. The starchy vegetables can increase the sugar levels- potatoes, corn and peas are included. Non starchy vegetables include broccoli, cabbage, sprouts, carrots, cucumber green, egg plants, ladies fingers (Okra), mushrooms, bell peppers, iceberg lettuce, tomatoes to name a few. These help in adding fiber and also keep the stomach full without increasing the sugar levels. Fruits
Fruits provide carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
What are healthy ways to eat fruits?
• Eat fruits raw or cooked, as juice with no sugar added, canned in their own juice, or dried.
• Buy smaller pieces of fruit.
• Choose pieces of fruit more often than fruit juice. Whole fruit is more filling and has more fiber.
• Save high-sugar and high-fat fruit desserts such as peach cobbler or cherry pie for special occasions.
• Feel the fruits before purchasing them. If fruits are very soft, they are sweeter.
• Generally speaking bananas from the Philippines, grapes, dates, mangoes, water melon, cherries and pineapple are very sweet
Milk provides carbohydrate, protein, calcium, vitamins, and minerals.
What are healthy ways to have milk?
• Drink fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) milk.
• Eat low-fat or fat-free fruit yogurt sweetened with a low-calorie sweetener.
• Use low-fat plain yogurt as a substitute for sour cream.
Meat and Meat Substitutes
Meat and meat substitutes provide protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Examples of meat and meat substitutes include chicken , fish, eggs, peanut butter
What are healthy ways to eat meat and meat substitutes?
• Eat chicken or turkey without the skin.
• Cook meat and meat substitutes in low-fat ways: broil , grill, stir fry, roast, steam and micro wave
• To add more flavor, use vinegars, lemon juice, soy sauce, salsa, ketchup, barbecue sauce, herbs, and spices.
• Cook eggs using cooking spray or a non-stick pan.
• Check food labels. Choose low-fat or fat-free cheese.
Fiber diet can slow the gastric emptying and slow down the rate of glucose absorption from the intestine. Water soluble fiber includes oats and bran. Men need 38 g of fiber day and women need 25 g a day.
But, do remember………
This does not mean one should avoid carbohydrates in total. Please be reminded that carbohydrates are needed for setting up the energy levels during the day.
One should have a hearty breakfast, a moderate lunch and a light dinner.
It will be worthwhile to have an approximate 45 grams carbohydrate inclusion with each of the main meals ( Normally a healthy person has 3 main meals and snacks in between).
Spread the carbohydrate intake during the day to help one curb hunger and thereby prevent overeating.
A toast of bread with an egg will fill you longer than a couple of toasts with jam.
Please be reminded that fish, chicken, Turkey Ham, eggs do not have carbohydrate.
But, addition of cheese or cream or milk while beating the gees to make them creamier, can shoot up the carbohydrate content.
Addition of bread crumbs and other coverings such as chick pea flour or corn flour can also send the sugar levels high.
All vegetables growing below the ground do contain some amount of carbohydrate and so excess consumption of the same can upset the sugar levels.
Those who are on insulin roughly need a unit of insulin for every 12-15 grams of carbohydrates taken.
Given below are 3 options for a meal containing 45 grams of carbohydrates
One cup of cooked oatmeal - 32 gram carbohydrate
Half medium sized banana - 13 grams of carbohydrate
A Hard boiled egg and some black coffee – no carbohydrate
2 scrambled eggs - no carbohydrate
A slice whole wheat bread – 15 grams
An orange - 18 grams
A cup of low fat milk - 14 grams
3 Rye bread pieces – 24 grams
Half cup non fat cheese – 5 grams
One cup blueberries - 15 grams
Avoid fizzy carbonated drinks and sugar free items as one may compensate by eating or drinking more.
Some tips for breakfast:
Those who eat a healthy and balanced breakfast regularly manage their body weight better as well as have better concentration. The breakfast is what sets the tempo and energy levels for the day.
• Turkey sandwiches are a good option.
• Smoothies with berries and low fat yoghurt are another good option
• Whole grain oat meal with fruits or nuts
• Making a French toast with whole grain bread dipped in batter made from egg white, cinnamon powder, salt to taste and vanilla essence makes a delicious dish. This can be topped with thinly sliced apples , berries or bananas.
• Do not watch television or use the computer while eating as many studies show an increased consumption of food and improper chewing of the food as well.
• Mid day snacks can be either fruits, low energy granola bars, non salted or non sweetened nuts comprising pistachios, walnuts, almonds, pecan , pine nuts and hazel nuts.
• 2 tablespoonfuls of olive oil is enough a day. Light olive oil is more processed than either the virgin or extra virgin olive oil. The light olive oil is lighter in color, but not lighter in calories or fat. Even too much of olive oil is not healthy.
• Having a bowl of salads is a healthy low calorie option ( of course without the rich creamy sauce or dressing).
• Base meals on starchy foods such as potatoes, bread, rice and pasta, choosing wholegrain where possible.
• Eat plenty of fiber-rich foods – such as oats, beans, peas, lentils, grains, seeds, fruit and vegetables, as well as wholegrain bread and brown rice and pasta.
• Eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables each day, in place of foods higher in fat and calories.
• Eat a low-fat diet and avoid increasing your fat and/or calorie intake.
• Eat as little as possible of: fried foods, fizzy drinks and confectionery high in added sugars
• Eat breakfast.
• Watch the portion size of meals and snacks, and how often you are eating.
• For adults, minimize the calories you take in from alcohol.
• Chew food thoroughly rather than gulping down the food.
• A small gesture such as cutting back on a spoon of sugar a day or even using the salad dressings or mayonnaise as dips rather than mix with the salads can cut back on calories.
Try having food on a 9 inch plate with half the plate comprising non starchy vegetables, the other quarter comprising one half of starchy vegetables or grains and the other quarter with protein. The tendency to have plate of 12 inches is quite common these days to get value for money.
Some dairy product can be added such as glass of low fat milk or low fat yoghurt. No second helpings! Food must not be more than an inch deep in plate ………!
Eat slowly, chew well. It gives enough time for the brain to register the stomach is full.
If you feel hungry after meals, try brushing your teeth or drinking water or having non starchy vegetables.
Eat more of vegetables which are non starchy ( those grown below the ground contain more starch)
Choose whole grains instead of processed grains
Use liquid oils rather than solid fats (solid fats contain high amounts of saturated fats which have high calories)
Use non fat or low fat dairy products
Drink water in plenty. Use less of fruits juices, cocktails, alcoholic beverages.
Lentils and kidney beans have more proteins and less fat
Beware of high calorie snacks which taste good
Beware of junk food.
Some of the commonly used items and their caloric values: Item Quantity Calories
Canned beans ½ cup 127
Bread One loaf 70
Normal butter ( salted) Big spoon 102
Non fat creamy cheese 28.35 g 23
Low fat cheddar cheese 28.35 g 79
Half fat creamy cheese 2 big spoons 64
Full fat mozzarella 28.35 g 90
Non fat yoghurt Cup 137
Flavored non fat yoghurt Cup 162
Low fat yoghurt Cup 155
Flavored low fat yoghurt Cup 250
Full fat yoghurt Cup 150
Flavored full fat yoghurt Cup 292
Non fat milk Cup 86
Full fat milk Cup 150
Boiled egg One 66
Egg mixed with oil fried 2 197
Fried falafel 28.35 g 111
Dried dates 5 114
Fried potatoes ½ cup 87
Fruit juice Cup 117
Beef 85.05 g 176
Roasted beef 85.05 g 211
White rice ½ cup 103
Brown rice ½ cup 108
Spaghetti macaroni Cup 197
Nuts ¼ cup 161
Peanut ¼ cup 212
Almonds ¼ cup 211
All oils One big spoon 120
Mushroom Cup 18
Mixed vegetables 1 cup 38
Ice cream 10-12% fat ½ cup 143
Fruit salad ½ cup 47
Chicken 28.35 g 56 Cereals:
Some have cereals with milk or some just put in a handful or two into their mouth and chew on them. The market is flooded with innovative labels and cereal boxes have attractive packs to lure the people. Most of the cereals are made targeting the kids and so they are rich in sugar.
• Go for the ones made for adults
• Read the nutrition labels well
• If sugar is written near the top half of the label, it means the sugar content is more.
• High fructose corn syrup, honey coated cereals, dextrose are all forms of sugar.
• Look for serving size- some may have one cup, some half a cup
• Look for calories per serving- Go for the ones which have < 160 cals per serving.
Go for adequate portions of vitamins and minerals, have some fruits and vegetables and limit trans fats, saturated fats. Did you know?
• Stress levels and infections can increase the sugar levels.
• Sports drinks contain as much sugar as in a fizzy drink
• Dried fruits contain more carbohydrates
• Birth control pills can increase the sugar levels.
• Prolonged moderate intensity exercise can predispose to low sugar during or after the exercise
• High intensity exercise for a short time can lead to high sugars!
• Cold temperatures and high altitude can increase the risk of low sugars
• Repeated episodes of low sugar can reduce the body`s ability to recognize low sugar. The counter regulatory response by the body is also blunted in such patients.
Is this the shape of things to come?
This is an interesting concept to follow:
To get the maximum of the food one has try these tips:
Pick food from different groups such as using fruits, vegetables, low fat milk, yoghurt, whole grain bread, pasta, brown rice, lean meat, fish, poultry and eggs.
Fasting from dawn to dusk in the holy month of Ramadan for healthy adult Muslims has been ordained and physically sick Muslims are exempt from it. However many Muslims with mild to moderate Diabetes, Hypertension and other medical conditions do want to fast.
The purpose of this presentation is make some recommendations how one can fast safely in light of research on fasting. Many are concerned they cannot fast when they have diabetes mellitus . Please consult with your doctor.
Some people may need some tests to be done to assess fitness for fasting. The salient features of fasting are :
It is a voluntary undertaking rather than being ordered by a physician
There is no selective food intake i.e. protein only, juice only, fruit only , water only etc
There is no total calorie malnutrition i.e. it not a semi starvation diet.
An exercise in self discipline i.e. from constant nibbling , drinking, smoking etc
Psychological effect on the body and additional prayer give additional peace. People who should ideally not fast, but can fast under supervision
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Those who get recurrent low sugar levels.
Chronic Renal Failure including Renal Transplant
Severe heart and lung conditions
Physically sick ( Quran 2: 184-185)
Traveler on a journey
Women during menstruation
Pregnant and lactating women
pre pubertal children
Do you know?
Blood glucose and Insulin levels will fall during the fast.
The first few days will take some adjustment. If in doubt( headache, sweating, dizziness) check sugar or blood pressure. What to do during the fasting:
Beware the sweets and the fried food.
Remember that by eating throughout the night will not help one tide over the next day. Instead indigestion and gas related problems may set in.
Fluid intake must be adequate during the night to make up for the reduced intake during the day
Having too much of sweets or fried food during the Sahoor can lead to dryness of the mouth which can be a cause of concern during the fast. Points to remember while breaking the fast at Ifthaar:
Drink enough water, butter milk or juice. A glass of water melon juice, butter milk or tender coconut water will be a good option to break the fast. One need not add glucose. Water melon juice is sweet by itself and usually people add more sugar. Water melon has a higher glycemic index.
Try to be careful with the fried and sweet food. Take them in moderation.
Have a good Ifthaar or Isha meal. Have your prayers and then go for a walk to allow digestion.
Have some fruit at about midnight if need be. Have a good Sahoor of needed.
Avoid too salty food at Sahoor as that can make the mouth dry forcing more fluid intake.
Check the sugar level 2 hours after Ifthaar to decide whether any additional dose of medicines is needed.
Exercise and Ramadhaan
One can exercise during the month. Please check the sugar before exercise. One can exercise lightly before Isha or after the heavy meal.
Try to avoid strenuous workouts as the body may be tired due to the lengthy fast.
Those who want to exercise before Iftaar should check their sugar before exercise. If sugar is below 100mg(5.5 mmol/L) avoid exercising.
Those with type 1 diabetes are exempt from fasting as their sugar levels are dependant on insulin. However, there are some who do fasting alternate days only. This is depending on your health status.
Some more tips
Check sugar levels just before Ifthaar and before the Sahoor meal.
One can check the sugar levels at 7 am before going to work. If the sugar levels are either too low or too high, it is wise to seek medical advice immediately. You may be advised to forego the fast that day.
Time your medicines between Iftaar and 1am.
If on long acting insulin such as Glargine or detemir, it is advised to take 20% less either at Ifthaar or Sahoor time
Normally the doses of most of the medicines could be reduced during the month.
The medicines have to be tailored in such a way that there is no hypoglycemia
Be careful of sulphonyl ureas and rapid acting insulin
Among the sulphonyl ureas, gliclazide is safe in that the chances of hypoglycemia is lesser and the weight gain is minimal.
Intermediate acting insulin are avoided during the month due to the 10-12 hour action which can go into the period of fasting
The essence of Ramadhaan is the same all over the world, but the flavors may differ.