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Some nutritional facts

Some nutritional facts

the_food_pyramid 1 vegan-pyramid 3

This is one area many are still unsure of. It is generally assumed cutting down the carbohydrate intake to as low as possible when one is a diabetic helps in control of diabetes.

” Gastronomic voyeurs have long proposed that eating is a holistic form of exercise involving various muscles necessary for scooping up the food, chewing it and getting the food to the mouth.”

Restaurants and supermarkets have taken marketing to whole new level. Terms such as biggies, jumbos, king size, grand,supreme and prompts such as all-you-can-eat -buffets and two-for-one -specials are enough to lure the unwary.

A good diet should contain 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 20% protein according to the American Diabetic association. One should aim for a weight loss of 5-7 % of the body weight. Most of the diets turn out to be failures as they are not practical or planned to give drastic results. Normally diabetics find it difficult to reduce weight and maintain weight loss when compared to a non diabetic. Some of the medicines taken for diabetes treatment also can cause weight gain.

Generally pregnant women and growing up children need more calories.

Culture or “habits” may have taught many of us to eat in response to any triggers such as stress, boredom, and guilt. We may multitask and eat and then wonder,” How on earth did I manage to eat that whole bag of chips or that large burger?”

Food , as a four letter word, is both a necessity as well as a burden when taken in excessive amounts. You must be familiar with the age old saying, “Eat to live and not live to eat”.

As one ages, the body weight may increase as you may be consuming more calories than needed. This coupled with the decreased physical activity and excuses such as “too tired from work”, “I just need to sleep for some time” ,” I shall grab a bite and then start”, and sink into the cozy sofa to seal the fate.

Calories

The daily need of calories depend on the following:
• The body size
• The age
• The height and weight.
• Level of activity
• Gender- whether male or female
• If pregnant.

Levels of activity

A person is labelled non active if the person is doing just normal activities such as going to work, shopping and going to school.

If the person does some physical activity such as walking for 2-4 kms daily or some form of exercise besides regular activity, the person is labelled moderately active.

If the person does heavy workouts like a gym workout, good games of squash, tennis or badminton or swimming, cycling, or walking more than 4 kms a day, the person is labelled very active.

One kilogram of body weight will equal 7700 calories. To reduce one kilogram over a week, one will have reduce 1100 calories daily. This may sound impossible. But, reducing the sugar intake by just one spoon daily can reduce the calorie intake by 500 calories. That is not a big burden, is it ?

The table given below will show the caloric needs based on age, gender and level of activity

 


Age
in years

Males Females
Non              active              Mod          active       very active
Non active Mod active

very active

10 1600 1800 2000 1400 1800 2000
11 1800 2000 2200 1600 1800 2000
15 2200 2600 3000 1800 2000 2400
18 2400 2800 3200 1800 2000 2400
21-25 2400 2800 3000 2000 2200 2400
26-35 2400 2600 3000 1800 2000 2200
36-45 2200 2600 2800 1800 2000 2200
46-55 2200 2400 2800 1600 1800 2200
56-65 2000 2400 2600 1600 1800 2000
66-75 2000 2200 2600 1600 1800 2000
>76 2000 2200 2400 1600 1800 2000

If one observes the above table carefully, the calorie intake for both gender groups is maximum between the ages 18-25 . Thereafter the recommended caloric intake comes down to that of a 10-15 year old irrespective of your level of activity. Well, that is something to seriously think about.

A healthy breakfast will include whole grains, lean protein such as peanut butter, lean meat, fish, poultry and hard boiled eggs, low fat dairy such as yoghurt, cheese and milk and a portion of fruits and vegetables.

 

Know the food

Starches

Starches are bread, grains, cereal, pasta, and starchy vegetables like corn and potatoes. They provide carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Whole grain starches are healthier because they have more vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
Eat some starches at each meal. Eating starches is healthy for everyone, including people with diabetes.
Examples of starches are bread , pasta, corn, potatoes, rice, cereals, beans, lentils, yam

What are healthy ways to eat starches?

• Buy whole grain breads and cereals.
• Avoid fried and high-fat starches such as regular tortilla chips and potato chips, french fries, pastries, or biscuits. Try fat-free popcorn, baked or potato chips, baked potatoes, or low-fat muffins.

• Use low-fat or fat-free plain yogurt or fat-free sour cream instead of regular sour cream on a baked potato.
• Use mustard instead of mayonnaise on a sandwich.
• Use low-fat or fat-free substitutes such as low-fat mayonnaise or light margarine on bread, rolls, or toast.
• Eat cereal with fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) milk

Vegetables

Vegetables provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. They are low in carbohydrate. Examples of vegetables are lettuce , broccoli, vegetable juice, spinach, peppers, carrots, tomatoes, Celery, cabbage, greens.
What are healthy ways to eat vegetables?
• Eat raw and cooked vegetables with little or no fat, sauces, or dressings.
• Try low-fat or fat-free salad dressing on raw vegetables or salads.
• Steam vegetables using water
• Mix in some chopped onion or garlic.
• Use a little vinegar or some lemon or lime juice.
• Add a small piece of lean ham or smoked turkey instead of fat to vegetables when cooking.
• Sprinkle with herbs and spices.
If you do use a small amount of fat, use canola oil, olive oil, or soft margarines (liquid or tub types) instead of fat from meat, butter, or shortening.

There are two types of vegetables- the starchy and non starchy. The starchy vegetables can increase the sugar levels- potatoes, corn and peas are included.
Non starchy vegetables include broccoli, cabbage, sprouts, carrots, cucumber green, egg plants, ladies fingers (Okra), mushrooms, bell peppers, iceberg lettuce, tomatoes to name a few. These help in adding fiber and also keep the stomach full without increasing the sugar levels.
Fruits

Fruits provide carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

fruits sugar  fruits

What are healthy ways to eat fruits?

• Eat fruits raw or cooked, as juice with no sugar added, canned in their own juice, or dried.
• Buy smaller pieces of fruit.
• Choose pieces of fruit more often than fruit juice. Whole fruit is more filling and has more fiber.
• Save high-sugar and high-fat fruit desserts such as peach cobbler or cherry pie for special occasions.
• Feel the fruits before purchasing them. If fruits are very soft, they are sweeter.
• Generally speaking bananas from the Philippines, grapes, dates, mangoes, water melon, cherries and pineapple are very sweet

Milk
Milk provides carbohydrate, protein, calcium, vitamins, and minerals.

What are healthy ways to have milk?
• Drink fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) milk.
• Eat low-fat or fat-free fruit yogurt sweetened with a low-calorie sweetener.
• Use low-fat plain yogurt as a substitute for sour cream.

Meat and Meat Substitutes

Meat and meat substitutes provide protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Examples of meat and meat substitutes include chicken , fish, eggs, peanut butter

What are healthy ways to eat meat and meat substitutes?
• Eat chicken or turkey without the skin.
• Cook meat and meat substitutes in low-fat ways:      broil , grill, stir fry, roast, steam and micro wave
• To add more flavor, use vinegars, lemon juice, soy sauce, salsa, ketchup, barbecue sauce, herbs, and spices.
• Cook eggs using cooking spray or a non-stick pan.
• Check food labels. Choose low-fat or fat-free cheese.

Fiber diet can slow the gastric emptying and slow down the rate of glucose absorption from the intestine. Water soluble fiber includes oats and bran. Men need 38 g of fiber day and women need 25 g a day.

But, do remember………

  • This does not mean one should avoid carbohydrates in total. Please be reminded that carbohydrates are needed for setting up the energy levels during the day.
  • One should have a hearty breakfast, a moderate lunch and a light dinner.
  • It will be worthwhile to have an approximate 45 grams carbohydrate inclusion with each of the main meals ( Normally a healthy person has 3 main meals and snacks in between).
  • Spread the carbohydrate intake during the day to help one curb hunger and thereby prevent overeating.
  • A toast of bread with an egg will fill you longer than a couple of toasts with jam.
  • Please be reminded that fish, chicken, Turkey Ham, eggs do not have carbohydrate.
  • But, addition of cheese or cream or milk while beating the gees to make them creamier, can shoot up the carbohydrate content.
  • Addition of bread crumbs and other coverings such as chick pea flour or corn flour can also send the sugar levels high.
  • All vegetables growing below the ground do contain some amount of carbohydrate and so excess consumption of the same can upset the sugar levels.
  • Those who are on insulin roughly need a unit of insulin for every 12-15 grams of carbohydrates taken.

Given below are 3 options for a meal containing 45 grams of carbohydrates

 

Option 1:

One cup of cooked oatmeal -                              32 gram carbohydrate
Half medium sized banana -                               13 grams of carbohydrate
A Hard boiled egg and some black coffee – no carbohydrate

Option 2:      

2 scrambled eggs -                                                 no carbohydrate
A slice whole wheat bread –                                 15 grams
An orange -                                                                  18 grams
A cup of low fat milk -                                              14 grams

Option 3        

3 Rye bread pieces –                                                 24 grams
Half cup non fat cheese –                                         5 grams
One cup blueberries -                                              15 grams
Avoid fizzy carbonated drinks and sugar free items as one may compensate by eating or drinking more.

Some tips for breakfast:

Those who eat a healthy and balanced breakfast regularly manage their body weight better as well as have better concentration. The breakfast is what sets the tempo and energy levels for the day.
Turkey sandwiches are a good option.
Smoothies with berries and low fat yoghurt are another good option
Whole grain oat meal with fruits or nuts
• Making a French toast with whole grain bread dipped in batter made from egg white, cinnamon powder, salt to taste and vanilla essence makes a delicious dish. This can be topped with thinly sliced apples , berries or bananas.
Do not watch television or use the computer while eating as many studies show an increased consumption of food and improper chewing of the food as well.
• Mid day snacks can be either fruits, low energy granola bars, non salted or non sweetened nuts comprising pistachios, walnuts, almonds, pecan , pine nuts and hazel nuts.
• 2 tablespoonfuls of olive oil is enough a day. Light olive oil is more processed than either the virgin or extra virgin olive oil. The light olive oil is lighter in color, but not lighter in calories or fat. Even too much of olive oil is not healthy.
• Having a bowl of salads is a healthy low calorie option ( of course without the rich creamy sauce or dressing).

Diet
• Base meals on starchy foods such as potatoes, bread, rice and pasta, choosing wholegrain where possible.
• Eat plenty of fiber-rich foods – such as oats, beans, peas, lentils, grains, seeds, fruit and vegetables, as well as wholegrain bread and brown rice and pasta.
• Eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables each day, in place of foods higher in fat and calories.
• Eat a low-fat diet and avoid increasing your fat and/or calorie intake.
• Eat as little as possible of: fried foods, fizzy drinks and confectionery high in added sugars
• Eat breakfast.
• Watch the portion size of meals and snacks, and how often you are eating.
• For adults, minimize the calories you take in from alcohol.
• Chew food thoroughly rather than gulping down the food.
• A small gesture such as cutting back on a spoon of sugar a day or even using the salad dressings or mayonnaise as dips rather than mix with the salads can cut back on calories.

  • Try having food on a 9 inch plate with half the plate comprising non starchy vegetables, the other quarter comprising one half of starchy vegetables or grains and the other quarter with protein. The tendency to have plate of 12 inches is quite common these days to get value for money.
  • Some dairy product can be added such as glass of low fat milk or low fat yoghurt. No second helpings! Food must not be more than an inch deep in plate ………!
  • Eat slowly, chew well. It gives enough time for the brain to register the stomach is full.
  • If you feel hungry after meals, try brushing your teeth or drinking water or having non starchy vegetables.

Some tips:

  • Eat more of vegetables which are non starchy ( those grown below the ground contain more starch)
  • Choose whole grains instead of processed grains
  • Use liquid oils rather than solid fats (solid fats contain high amounts of saturated fats which have high calories)
  • Use non fat or low fat dairy products
  • Drink water in plenty. Use less of fruits juices, cocktails, alcoholic beverages.
  • Lentils and kidney beans have more proteins and less fat
  • Beware of high calorie snacks which taste good
  • Beware of junk food.

Some of the commonly used items and their caloric values:
Item                                                                            Quantity                                                         Calories
Canned beans                                                          ½ cup                                                                  127
Bread                                                                         One loaf                                                                70
Normal butter ( salted)                                      Big spoon                                                            102
Non fat creamy cheese                                        28.35 g                                                                  23
Low fat cheddar cheese                                      28.35 g                                                                  79
Half fat creamy cheese                                       2 big spoons                                                        64
Full fat mozzarella                                               28.35 g                                                                   90
Non fat yoghurt                                                     Cup                                                                        137
Flavored non fat yoghurt                                  Cup                                                                        162
Low fat yoghurt                                                     Cup                                                                        155
Flavored low fat yoghurt                                   Cup                                                                        250
Full fat yoghurt                                                      Cup                                                                        150
Flavored full fat yoghurt                                    Cup                                                                        292
Non fat milk                                                             Cup                                                                         86
Full fat milk                                                              Cup                                                                       150
Boiled egg                                                                 One                                                                        66
Egg mixed with oil fried                                      2                                                                            197
Fried falafel                                                            28.35 g                                                                  111
Dried dates                                                                5                                                                             114
Fried potatoes                                                      ½ cup                                                                     87
Fruit juice                                                               Cup                                                                         117
Beef                                                                           85.05 g                                                                  176
Roasted beef                                                          85.05 g                                                                 211
White rice                                                              ½ cup                                                                     103
Brown rice                                                              ½ cup                                                                    108
Spaghetti macaroni                                            Cup                                                                          197
Nuts                                                                           ¼ cup                                                                    161
Peanut                                                                      ¼ cup                                                                     212
Almonds                                                                  ¼ cup                                                                     211
All oils                                                                     One big spoon                                                       120
Mushroom                                                              Cup                                                                            18
Mixed vegetables                                               1 cup                                                                           38
Ice cream 10-12% fat                                        ½ cup                                                                       143
Fruit salad                                                              ½ cup                                                                        47
Chicken                                                                   28.35 g                                                                       56
Cereals:
Some have cereals with milk or some just put in a handful or two into their mouth and chew on them. The market is flooded with innovative labels and cereal boxes have attractive packs to lure the people. Most of the cereals are made targeting the kids and so they are rich in sugar.
• Go for the ones made for adults
• Read the nutrition labels well
• If sugar is written near the top half of the label, it means the sugar content is more.
• High fructose corn syrup, honey coated cereals, dextrose are all forms of sugar.
• Look for serving size- some may have one cup, some half a cup
• Look for calories per serving- Go for the ones which have < 160 cals per serving.
Go for adequate portions of vitamins and minerals, have some fruits and vegetables and limit trans fats, saturated fats.
Did you know?

• Stress levels and infections can increase the sugar levels.

• Sports drinks contain as much sugar as in a fizzy drink

• Dried fruits contain more carbohydrates

• Birth control pills can increase the sugar levels.

• Prolonged moderate intensity exercise can predispose to low sugar during or after the exercise

• High intensity exercise for a short time can lead to high sugars!

• Cold temperatures and high altitude can increase the risk of low sugars

• Repeated episodes of low sugar can reduce the body`s ability to recognize low sugar. The counter regulatory response by the body is also blunted in such patients.

 

Is this the shape of things to come?

 

Food-Pyramid 2

This is an interesting concept to follow:

my_food_pyramid 4

 To get the maximum of the food one has try these tips:

Pick food from different groups such as using fruits, vegetables, low fat milk, yoghurt, whole grain bread, pasta, brown rice, lean meat, fish, poultry and eggs.

Keep a track of unhealthy eating habits:

  • The day and time of the day
  • The mood at that time
  • What one was doing at that time
  • The location
  • Portion sizes
More

sugar sweetened beverages

sugar sweetened beverages

It is of a major concern that the increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages has been linked to the development of the dangerous chronic illnesses such as diabetes type 2, hypertension and coronary heart disease.

The increased consumption has been a potential contributor to the pandemic of obesity.

Unlike carbohydrates which have a high fiber content, the sugar sweetened beverages are nutrient poor and are often accompanied by intake of salty fast food as well. High levels of fructose corn syrup promote insulin resistance as well as fatty liver which can lead on to diabetes type 2.

The pictures given below show the amount of sugar in some of the commonly used things. It is eye popping. Out here in the Middle East, Coca Cola and Mountain Dew are considered like the national drinks and no party is complete without a similar beverage.

sugar beverages                  sugar beverages 2

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Diabetes and digital age

Diabetes and digital age

Though close to 85% use the internet even if from the low socioeconomic  population, digital technology and web based application usage has been very slow to catch on when compared to the boom experienced in the retail shopping and banking sectors worldwide. The vast majority of online communities, mobile applications ( Apps, as they are commonly known) and web sites have been very sluggish in integrating with the mainstream health care stream.

Social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp and many others I am unsure of, have helped transform social life in a big way to a point where people avoid face to face contact. But these sites have also helped create a platform to support sharing of knowledge, communication and understanding, lever positive behavioral changes and also help in using the audiovisual mode of communication which lingers longer in memory.

More frequent consultations will be costly and not affordable to many even this day. This way of e- health will help tide over this if used well. This will help in increasing treatment adherence, health related behaviors as well as give a feeling of being looked and cared for.

But, there are some barriers to accepting the digital technology such as :

  • in those with physical or visual impairment
  • those who are illiterate
  • those who do not read or speak english
  • those residing in geographically remote areas
  • those with social phobias
  • those concerned about their privacy

 

Telephones have become more than just a gadget to either receive or make a call. With the new generation smartphones, one can record conversations, take excellent photographs, transfer them instantly through internet, chat with friends on the social media, create presentations for meetings, store data in excel format, fax documents, scan documents, use the phone as an organizer, store songs and movies which can be played when alone or bored. Now – a days, these smartphones have also taken the role of a health assistant which can track the progress in exercise schedule, diet, weight loss, and store personal data such as sugar readings over the past 3 months with a graphical representation included. These can be uploaded where you are on this planet and can be linked to the doctors phone for an instant viewing. The list is endless. Maybe there is an app which can remind one to take the medicines on time in case one has forgotten.

There were days when people used log books to record their sugar readings and might even forget to get them when coming for the consultation. Now – a – days with advancements in technology, there have been significant developments in the way a person with diabetes can record their progress or even hide their frustrations by making excuses such as worn out batteries and even having forgotten them at home.

Things have become so technological these days with the data being uploaded to a remote system or a good mobile devise or even the doctors chambers. This comes particularly handy among the young children who sometimes tell lies to escape the wrath of their parents. The data is instantly shared with the parents phone devise helping them keep a track of the events.

There are numerous applications ( Apps) which can be downloaded either for free or for a price which can help in various functions and even take over as a personal health secretary. The list is so vast and all have not been mentioned here. Some are free to download , some have to be paid for.

 

Some apps for nutrition include :  Fooducate, Carbs and Cals, Carbmaster free, calorie counter, calorie tracker, daily burn, lose it, Go meals, weight watchers mobile

Some apps for exercise include: my fitness pal, run tracker,workout trainer

Some for glucose monitoring include: Bant, dLife, Glucose buddy, GluCoMo, Wave sense, Glooko, DBees.com, Glucatrend diabetes, VRee, On track, Handylogs sugar
Ihealth wireless smart glucomonitoring system and TelCare wireless glucose meter can help synchronize ( or sync ) the data with an App, website or even an i cloud.

 

Ditto

ditto glucose data system

This is a devise connected to a glucometer which can transfer data to a remote system or website.

Glook O

glooko

This is a cable connecting a phone to a glucometer. This can be uploaded to the cloud .
Some of the Apps can even show long term trends and graphically represent them making the visualization much better ( if all is going well) . The only problem is one will have to enter the data and allow the App to take care of the rest. This data can be shared with the health care provider almost immediately which helps taking health care to another level.

Diabetes Pal- this helps even recording and advising on level of physical activity and can record the glucose readings as well.

Glucose Buddy

diabetest apps_0

This app lets you record blood glucose levels and note the time of day—such as “before breakfast” or “during activity.” You can view trend graphs, interact in the Glucose Buddy forums, and record insulin injections, exercise, and food eaten. You can also sync your phone to an online account to manage your data on Glucose Buddy’s website. Devices: iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad

WaveSense Meter
wavesense app

 

Manufacturer AgaMatrix’s app lets you log blood glucose levels and type in personal notes. You can record the amount of insulin injected and the number of carbohydrates eaten, and view one-, three-, seven-, 14-, 30-, and 90-day trends in graph or chart form. High, in-range, and low readings are color coded in the logbook. And you can e-mail your stats to family or your doctor. The app comes loaded with about 50 diabetes-related videos. Devices: iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad
OnTrack

Medivo-Acquires-OnTrack-Diabetes

With this app one can log and store the blood glucose level as well as food intake, blood pressure, weight, exercise, pulse, A1C results, body fat percentage, and medications  taken. For each entry,  personal notes can be added. Results can be exported via e-mail to your medical team. Devices: Android phones

 

Lose It

 

lose it app

Track  weight loss, daily food intake, and exercise with this comprehensive app. Meals taken can be added instantly (from a list of common foods, brand-name foods, and restaurant meals, or  own recipes) and watch the sliding scale climb toward the recommended daily calorie limit. One can record exercise (choose from a long list of activities), graph the weight loss, get reminders, and share the progress on Facebook and Twitter. Devices: iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad

Calorie Counter by MyNetDiary

my net diary app

With this app, eon can record meals (choose from an expansive food library that includes restaurant picks), exercise, water intake, medications,  weight and measurements. Food selections include nutrition facts

dLife-

app for DM

This app gives an idea of food and how it affects the sugar, recipes and even short videos. The diabetes website dLife makes a diabetes application that you can use to log glucose levels, find recipes and nutrition information, watch dLife videos, and connect with the dLife community and experts to get answers to your diabetes-related questions. Aside from logging the sugar levels, you can graph daily, weekly, or monthly levels and track trends—all of which  can be e-mailed to yourself or your health care provider. Devices: iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad
Fooducate

 

fooducate-diabetes-app-icon

This app could be your shopping companion on the next trip to the grocery store. You can scan barcodes, search for products, and browse categories to find foods you’re shopping for. By selecting a food, you’ll get a list of health pros (100 percent whole grain!) and cons (loaded with high-fructose corn syrup!) and can compare it to similar products. Keep track of products you eat regularly by “liking” a food. Then, next time you hit the store, you can pull up a “my likes” list of foods you might want to buy again. Devices: iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad
7 MINUTE WORKOUT

7 minute workout app

This is an app which can fit into any routine, has 12 simple exercises which are scientifically formulated.
SWORKIT –

sworkit-app-e1360796738997

This has exercises for strength training, yoga, cardio and stretching. All one has to do is to select a workout category, and how long the exercise plan should be for. Accompanying videos will help show how to perform the exercises properly with minimum injury and maximum effect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RUNKEEPER-

run keeper app

This is an app which is ideal for those interested in cycling, running, swimming and biking. This has an in built Goal Coach which sets a realistic goal to follow.
ManageBGL is an app that offers a simulated insulin pump. This is of use among those who are having Type 1 diabetes or those having type 2 diabetes with multiple doses of insulin.This needs some input such as current and previous blood sugar levels, carbohydrate intake, insulin dose and this will predict the future glucose readings and aid in auto calculation of bolus insulin dose.

To help those who are handicapped with poor eyesight, some glucometers have come with a voice readout.
Sharing the data through social media such as WhatsApp, TalkRay , Viber, Instagram and Facebook have made the modes of sending across data almost instantaneously. If you ever noticed, a once upon a time luxury called email, has now almost become mandatory. There have been instances when patients have even used the above to send me snaps of the medicines they wish to have refilled or even to send me snaps of some ulcers on their foot to help monitor the progress and even to help with their appointments. Scanning and sending their test results from the far corners of the world can be sent across through one of these portals.

 

 

 

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Smoking and Diabetes

Smoking and Diabetes

smoking 1                                                                                            smoking 2

 

Smoking has been the passion of many though the prevalence has come down from a lofty 40% in 1965 to 20.9% in 2006. 90 % of the smokers were below 20 years of age. 18.1% of the adult females and 23.9% of the adult males smoked in a survey conducted across some continents in 2008. It sure must be higher now.
Peer pressure, stress at work, status symbol, a recreation, a pastime, copying their role models all are causes of initiating smoking.
All are aware that smoking is associated with reduced life span, higher risk of different types of cancers, digestive problems, staining of the teeth, leg problems and also problems during pregnancy.
Those who remain in the company of smokers are equally at risk for developing complications– called environmental tobacco smoke. Children whose parent/s smoke had a higher chance of being an asthmatic , having recurrent respiratory infections or even ear infections.

Diabetes and smoking
Among those with diabetes who smoked , the risks were greater than those who did not smoke and had diabetes.
Metabolic control was poor among the diabetic patients who smoked. The following were noted among the diabetic patients who smoked:
• Increased fluctuations in sugar levels and HbA1c, the 3 month average of sugar
• Increased blood pressure and retinal blood flow
• Increased bad cholesterol- LDL and triglyceride
• Associated increase in adrenaline, growth hormone or cortisol which could increase glucose levels.
• There could be associated alcohol intake with an increased high fat diet consumption.
• Less likelihood of exercising.
• There may be a progression of complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Cessation of smoking is an important step in the management of diabetes management. This is associated with less chances of developing a heart related disorder, stroke, cancer or leg vascular disease and improving life expectancy. Those who benefit most are those who quit at a younger age, those who have lesser tobacco pack years. Smoking cessation has health benefits for all ages even after the age of 65 years or even after smoking related complications develop. Mortality rates of those smokers who have abstained for more than 15 years closely approach that of those non smokers.
Withdrawal symptoms -craving, depression, anger, frustration, irritability and sleep disorders.
The treatment of withdrawal includes psychological treatment, positive reinforcement and medicines which help to replace nicotine such as nicotine patches kept on the skin ,nicotine containing chewing gums, lozenges, nasal sprays or even inhalers.
Menthol cigarettes or low tar cigarettes do not reduce the risk for hazards to smoking.
Electronic cigarettes have not yet been approved for withdrawal, though many claim to find them beneficial.
Benefits of cessation of smoking

Half of the excess cardiovascular risk is eliminated in first year of quitting. There is 30- 50% excess risk for lung cancer even after quitting for almost 10 years.

The highest risk for the development of type 2 diabetes occurred in the first 3 years after quitting but this risk gradually declined to 0 at 12 years.

In lighter vein…….

 

  • 46% admitted to not eating sweets when smoking and 38% admitted smoking calmed them down…..
  • But, those who stopped smoking were found to gain 3.8 to 4 kg per year in men and among women a 2.8-3 kg increase per year. But, this increase can be prevented by good lifestyle management.
  • I even had patients tell me they felt smoking was able to control their diabetes better due to the absence of weight gain as well as by not eating sweets. But, the hazards of smoking outweigh these small “benefits”.

 

 

 

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Winter and Diabetes

Winter and Diabetes

Winter-Snowman (1)winter

 

Normally during the cold winter months, the levels of HbA1C, the 3 month average of sugar, can be higher due to higher food quantity consumed to combat the cold, the frequent outdoor barbeques and probably excess liquor consumption with the co incident Christmas and New Year festivities. People spend more time indoors in places where the weather is extreme. Lack of adequate physical activity and excess sleeping hours cuddled up under the warm blankets add more insult. It is quite natural to gain 5-6 kilos during the winter.

Blood Sugar Testing

GlucometerThe finger tips may be cold and so warm them by rubbing them together or wrapping them around a hot mug before pricking the finger for testing. In places where it snows, the glucometer kit has to be kept warm in covered bags so that errors do not come in the readings

 

 

 

Exercising

It is difficult to work up a sweat while exercising during this time and one may feel cold after the exercise due to the evaporation. Remember to dress adequately while going for outdoor exercises. Hydration with adequate amounts of fluids is still important even in the colder months. Dehydration can increase the sugar levels.

yoga       Tai Chi

 

 

Hula Hoop             swimming

Exercise such as skipping rope, doing the Hula Hoop, aerobics, dancing, yoga, swimming in thermal controlled swimming pools or working out in an indoor gymnasium do wonders. The benefits of exercise are the same whether done during winter or summer!!

Some blame the cold for exercising outdoors, but then they also blame the summer heat and humidity when that sets in.

Care of Skin

It is important to take good care of the skin as it can dry quite fast. Adequate and generous application of moisturising creams, and sunscreen if going to winter sports such as skiing or snow surfing or those just trekking in the snow laden mountains are very important. Adequate hydration keeps the skin shining and hydrated.

Those with neuropathy ( where the nerves of the feet are not working properly) may have difficulty in gauging the heat of water used for bathing.

Take care of the feet. Do not use hot water bags to keep yourself warm. Use multiple layers of clothing or socks at night to the feet. In some countries warm fireplaces keep the rooms warm, but beware the carbon monoxide accumulation.

Food & Beverages

Alcohol may cause a sense of warmth caused by dilatation of blood vessels, but the same may be lost after some time. Manage the consumption of alcohol wisely. Try to take hot beverages and easily digestible food such as soups, oats, porridge, steamed food and some fruits. Black tea with crushed ginger and black pepper is a good drink to even soothe the throat. Remember that excess red meat consumption can lead to high cholesterol levels in some races. The temperature can get quite low at night and it is natural people may eat more to raise their body temperature. Remember you do not need that much food at dinner whether it is summer or winter. It is healthier to sleep on a lighter stomach.

Frequent respiratory infections , mostly viral, are quite common. It is wise to have a Flu vaccine taken once a year rather than have to take multiple courses of antibiotics and medications to combat the infection. The elder adults should have a shot of pneumococcal vaccine once in their life.

It is also quite common to get infections due to food poisoning from eating out .

Use tissues, frequent washing of hands  using soap and water or sanitizers especially before shaking hands with others help to prevent transmission.

Gargling of the throat with warm saline helps. So also does steam inhalation.

Fizzy cool sugary drinks do not help whether it is summer or winter.

Enjoy the winter because you will wish it was like this when summer blasts in.

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glycemic index

glycemic index

glycemic-index-chart

Glycemic index ( GI )of a food is the increase in blood glucose ( above fasting glucose) 2 hours after ingestion of a constant amount of food divided by a reference food( usually glucose).

To make this easy to understand, if the GI of a particular food is 72, this means that 72% of the ingested food is converted to glucose within the body after 2 hours of consumption.

GI reflects the rate at which carbohydrate is absorbed and digested by the body. Try to aim for low GI food combined with medium or high GI food rather than have more of high GI food. Whatever be the diet chosen, the dietary management has to be combined with physical activity for maximum benefit. A diet which suits one person may not suit all. It is advisable to see which food increases the sugar levels by checking the sugar levels after each food ( this is painful, but this can help to decide which food suits a person).
Low GI food stuff with the GI levels
Yoghurt low fat 14             Milk chocolate 24             Multi grain bread 48          Broccoli 15            Spaghetti 27              Parboiled rice 48                      Celery 15                              Skimmed milk 32                 Carrot juice 45               Bell peppers 15          Fat free milk 32   Jams and marmalade 49            Spinach 15                         Apple 38                         Low fat ice cream 50            Tomato 15                      Plum 38                   Orange juice 52                       Soya beans boiled 16             Pears 38               Kiwi 53                          Artichoke 15           Apricots dried 31                     Banana 54                            Asparagus 15

Black beans 41               Sweet potato 54              Cauliflower 15          Boiled lentils 29                  Egg plant 15                Boiled kidney beans 29      Lettuce 15                                 Green beans 15                          Peanuts 15                             Cucumber 15

 

Medium GI food with their GI levels

Oat bran 55                       Rye-flour bread 64                        Rice, brown 55                 Apricots (tinned in syrup) 64         Fruit cocktail 55 Raisins 64                          Spaghetti, durum wheat 55           Macaroni cheese 64        Popcorn 55                                             Beetroot 64 Muesli 56                          Mars bar 64                                          Mangoes 56                         Black bean soup, tinned 64         Potato, boiled 56

Cake , tart 65                  Mini Wheats (wholemeal) 57           Potato, steamed 65 *       Table sugar (sucrose) 65       Apricots 57

Barley, flakes 66             Potato, new 57              Pineapple 66         Digestives 58              Rice, white 58     Croissant 67         Pizza, cheese 60               Ryvita 67                          Hamburger bun 61      *Ice-cream 61 Whole meal bread 69     Shredded Wheat 69          Muffin (unsweetened) 62                Potato, mashed 70
High GI food with their GI levels
White bread 71                    Broad beans 79                     Golden Grahams 71                 Jelly beans 80                                               Millet 71             Pretzels 81 **                         Watermelon 72                     Rice Krispies 82                     White rolls 73                          Potato, micro waved 82    Puffed wheat 7                   Cornflakes 83                             Corn chips 74                      Potato, instant 83                                       Chips75

**Potato, baked 85             Rice pasta, brown 92             Doughnut 76                      Wafer biscuits 77 **                 Rice cakes 77

Dates 103
** low in calories and highly nutritious
* empty calories

 

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Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery is known to be the most effective and long lasting treatment for morbid obesity and many related conditions, but now mounting evidence suggests it may be among the most effective treatments for metabolic diseases and conditions including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obstructive sleep apnea.

People are often reluctant to undergo surgery for fear of pain and the possible scars on their body. Some buy time by dieting and doing other herbal cures. These may last for a short time and the weight loss may rebound in a short period. The weight loss will not be permanent in these methods.

Indications:

  • Please be informed that this is not useful among those with type 1 diabetes in curing diabetes.
  • Bariatric surgeries help in almost full cessation of medicines for diabetes type 2, blood pressure and cholesterol after the surgery. Of course, one may have to take a multivitamin tablet or an iron tablet after the surgery.
  • This will be done only of the BMI is >40 or >30 with other medical problems.
  • Please be reminded that not all people who are overweight or obese will benefit from the surgery and so also some not so obese people will benefit from this surgery to help adjust their metabolic dysfunction thereby improving their quality of life.

Work up prior to surgery

doctors-image

Normally all fat people will carry some risk for surgery as they will have many associated problems. A thorough medical check up is normally done which will include blood tests, chest X ray, spirometry to check the lung function, a detailed heart check up , a check up by the anesthetist ( doctor who puts you to sleep during the surgery) and the dietitian. Normally the patient , after medical check up, will be admitted the night before the surgery and be discharged the day after the surgery after performing an X ray to check for leaks ( you will made to drink a medicine and then X ray will be taken). Normally the person can go for work in office after 5 days. This is a procedure done by laparoscope and so pain is very much reduced.

Types of surgeries:

There are two main types of bariatric surgeries – Restrictive and malabsorbptive. “Restrictive” means reducing the size of the stomach that prevents the patient from eating more than a small amount of food. “Malabsorbptive” means that the patient eats normally but the carbohydrate and fat are not absorbed from the gut leading to loss of weight. The common three operations done for obesity all over the world are Gastric Banding, Sleeve Gastrectomy , Mini bypass and Gastric Bypass.

Gastric Banding

bandIn this, a PVC band is applied to the uppermost part of the stomach to restrict the size of the stomach. Thus  there is an artificially small gastric pouch. When the patient takes more than a little food, he feels full rapidly and if he eats more he feels like vomiting. This will need frequent filling up of the band to narrow the opening. It can be relaxed as well when needed. This is not much of use in the adult population these days.
Sleeve Gastrectomy

sleeveThis operation utilizes a series of staplers to run across the stomach to restrict the size of the stomach, to convert it into a tubular structure. The great advantage of this operation is that it does not require frequent adjustments like the gastric band does. Also it is quite easy to perform in experienced hands, and the time taken for surgery is also not much. The average weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy is about 25-30 kg. Depending on the excess weight an individual has, it can be more. In other words, several patients have lost about 50-80 kg after this operation!

 

Gastric Bypass

BypassIt is a more complex operation which bypasses the second half of the stomach by connecting the first half of stomach directly to the intestine. Although this is a technically challenging operation compared to the sleeve gastrectomy, it is more useful in obese patients who are also diabetic, hypertensive, and have cholesterol and triglyceride problems. However the major issue with gastric bypass is the need to take calcium, iron and vitamin B12 supplements as the nutrients are not absorbed sufficiently following this operation.

A Mini Bypass

mini bypassThis is also in practice now.

Side effects:

The common fear is whether these operations carry any major side effects. As far as the sleeve gastrectomy is concerned, the major side effects are in the immediate post operative period, when the surgeon worries about a possible leak. This happens only in a tiny proportion of patients, that too those who are very fat, in the region of around 200 kg. Even in such patients, in the last year or two special devices have been introduced to support the stapler line and prevent leak. Thus with each passing year, these operations are becoming safer.

Conclusion:

The era of bariatric surgery questioned is over, it is now accepted with nearly over forty lakh patients having undergone this surgery from all over the world. With this background, it is best to use it judiciously to make patients lose weight, take control over their diabetes, hypertension, and live healthy long lives. (One study showed that on an average patients live 15 years more after performing bariatric surgery) The sun has not set on Bariatric surgery. It has just risen.
These metabolic surgeries are being done to help control the weight and even get rid of diabetes, hypertension and increased lipids. But, it needs the person to be motivated for the rest of life to keep the beneficial effects of the procedure. These can cost quite a lot, but can be tried to contain those who are extremely obese and or dependent on just too many medicines for their metabolic control.
The surgery will help reduce the intake of medicines for blood pressure, diabetes and high blood lipids, which will make the patient feel much better than having to take so many medicines.

The success of the surgery will depend largely up on the determination of the patient and the ongoing effort by the patient to adhere to the instructions given by the medical and surgical team. One will have to adhere to a diet pattern during the post operative phase. The patients will have to be on a lifelong supplement of vitamins and some on iron as well.
Liposuction removes the subcutaneous fat and not the visceral fat. So, it may help in better look, but the dangerous visceral fat will remain as it is.

What is metabolic syndrome?

This is a condition in which excess body fat is collected and deposited on the body which has an adverse effect on life. Those with metabolic syndrome have the following as well:

  • High Body mass index
  • High blood pressure
  • Polycystic ovaries
  • High blood lipids
  • High waist circumference( >90 cm in males and >80 cms in females)
  • Sleep disorders
  • Fatty liver

Those with metabolic syndrome are prone to develop the following:

  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Coronary heart disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Cancers of the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus), colon and breast.
  • Stroke
  • Infertility
  • Mental disorders
  • Sleep disorders( sleep apnoea)
  • Liver and gall bladder disease

The management will need the support of many specialties including even a psychologist opinion.

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Travel and Diabetes

Travel and Diabetes

Aeroplane-In-Sky-Wallpaper                                        cruise-ship

 

In todays world,one needs to relax in between to recharge ones mental and physical faculties. Just being a diabetic should not ruin your chances for a pleasurable trip.

See Your Doctor Before You Go
Before a long trip, have a medical exam to make sure your diabetes is in good control. Schedule the exam with enough time to work on your control before you depart. Get immunization shots — if you need them — at least one month before you leave. If the shots make you sick, you’ll have time to recover before your trip. Some countries do insist on some vaccinations which are mandatory. Most of the vaccines are available at the Tertiary care centers here in the Sultanate. They will issue a vaccination card as well which you may have to produce at the port of entry.

You might be needing a letter stating you are carrying the insulin shots, the glucometer kits, syringes and the pump in your carry bag. The site www.OneBag.com will help. The site diabetesaliciousness.blogspot.com  also helps in knowing rules at airports around the world.

Before any trip, get two papers from your doctor: a letter and a prescription. The letter should explain what you need to do for your diabetes, such as take diabetes pills or insulin shots. It should list insulin, syringes, and any other medications or devices you use. The letter should also list any allergies you have or any foods or medications to which you are sensitive.

The prescription should be for insulin or diabetes pills. You should have more than enough insulin and syringes or pills to last through the trip. But the prescription may help in case of emergency. It may be useful to have a prescription in the language of the country you are visiting as English is not widely spoken or understood in some parts of the world.  The sites https://translate.google.com as well as packitup.com give an idea how to do this translation.

It is safer to have enough stock of the medicines with you. It will be cumbersome to hunt for a doctor and schedule an appointment in the middle of enjoyment. This can even ruin your vacation. Carry enough stock of batteries for the glucometer or pump.

Prepare for an Emergency Abroad
No matter where you go, wear a medical ID bracelet or necklace that shows you have diabetes. If you’re leaving the country, also learn how to say “I have diabetes” and “sugar or orange juice, please” in the language or languages of the countries you’ll visit.

Insure yourself if need be. InsureMy Trip.com can help.

Medical IDs
Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, should have a medical ID with them at all times.
In the event of a severe hypoglycemic episode, a car accident, or other emergency, the medical ID can provide critical information about the person’s health status, such as the fact that they have diabetes, whether or not they use insulin, whether they have any allergies, etc. Emergency medical personnel are trained to look for a medical ID when they are caring for someone who can’t speak for themselves.
Packing Tips
The second rule of travel for a person with diabetes: pack at least twice as much medication and blood-testing supplies as you think you need. Pack all of them in your carry-on bag so that your medication is always with you (checked luggage can get lost). Keep a photograph of the medicines you are on in your smartphone. This will help in case the prescription is lost.
Whether you travel by car, plane, boat, bike, or foot, you’ll want to keep this “carry-on” bag with you at all times. Pack this bag with:
• all the insulin and syringes you will need for the trip
• blood  testing supplies (include extra batteries for your glucose meter)
• all oral medications (an extra supply is a good idea)
• other medications or medical supplies, such as glucagon, antidiarrhoeal medication, antibiotic ointment,  drugs for motion sickness.
• your ID and diabetes identity card
• a well-wrapped, air-tight snack pack of crackers or cheese, peanut butter, fruit, a juice box, and some form of sugar (hard candy or glucose tablets) to treat low blood glucose.
Eating in the Air
When you fly, you can request a special meal low in sugar, fat, or cholesterol. Make your request at least two days before the flight.
If you take insulin, wait until you see your food coming down the aisle before you take your shot. Otherwise, a delay in the meal could lead to low blood glucose. To be safe, always carry some food with you. If your meal is delayed or an order is mixed up, you won’t be stuck with an empty stomach.
I am on insulin

  • When you travel with insulin, give some thought to where you’ll be storing your supplies. Insulin does not need to be refrigerated, but insulin stored in very hot or very cold temperatures may lose strength.
  • Do not store your insulin in the glove compartment or trunk of your car. Backpacks and cycle bags can get quite hot in the direct sunlight. If you plan to travel by car or bike or to be out in the elements, take steps to protect your insulin. Many travel packs are available to keep your insulin cool.
  • In general, you should stick with the exact brand and formulation of insulin that you have been prescribed by your doctor.
  • However, if you run out while you are on the road, and your regular brand is unavailable, you may substitute another brand’s equivalent formulation (for example, NovoLog for Humalog, Humulin R for Novolin R). Changes in formulation (for example, from rapid-acting Humalog to to short-acting Humulin R) require medical supervision.

Insulin can come as U-40, U-80 U-100 and U-500. This means one ml of that insulin could have either 40 units or 80 units or 100 units or 500 units.
If you need to use these insulin preparations, you must buy new syringes to match the new insulin to avoid a mistake in your insulin dose. If you use U-100 syringes for U-40 or U-80 insulin, you will take much less insulin than your correct dose. If you use U-100 insulin in a U-40 or U-80 syringe, you will take too much insulin. However, the pen devices do not have these problems.

Crossing Time Zones
If you take insulin shots and will be crossing time zones, talk to your doctor or diabetes educator before your trip. Bring your flight schedule and information on time zone changes. Your doctor or educator can help you plan the timing of your injections while you travel.

Remember: eastward travel means a shorter day. If you inject insulin, less may be needed. Westward travel means a longer day, so more insulin may be needed.Visit www.voyagemd.com for insulin dose calculation while going on long hours. One may also need to adjust the insulin dosages when going on trekking or climbing mountains when abroad.

  • To keep track of shots and meals through changing time zones, keep a watch on the home time zone until the morning after arrival.
  • Keep the home time in the watch for half a day after arriving so that you take the shots of insulin at the normal time as back home. The time can be set after 8 hours.
  • If on an insulin pump, change the time to new country before take off and program the pumpaccor
  • If one injects insulin while in flight, those traveling frequently suggest you be careful not to inject air into the insulin bottle. In the pressurized cabin, pressure differences can cause the plunger to “fight you.” This can make it hard to measure insulin accurately.
  • Checking the blood glucose while traveling is as important as when at home. Also, check the blood glucose level as soon as possible after landing.
  • Jet lag can make it hard to tell if one have very low or very high blood glucose.

Welcome to a new place
After a long flight, take it easy for a few days. Check your blood glucose often. If you take insulin, plan your activities so you can work in your insulin and meals.

  • If you are more active than usual, your blood glucose could go too low. Take along snacks when hiking or sightseeing. Don’t assume you will be able to find food wherever you are.
  • No matter what kind of diabetes you have, it’s smart to watch what you eat and drink when traveling. Avoid tap water overseas. This includes ice cubes made from tap water.
  • Ask for a list of ingredients for unfamiliar foods. Some foods may upset your stomach and hurt your diabetes control. But you will also find foods that give you a healthy taste of culture.
  • Wear comfortable shoes and never go barefoot. Check your feet every day. You should look for blisters, cuts, redness, swelling, and scratches. Get medical care at the first sign of infection or inflammation.
  • Go wherever your heart leads you. Just remember that you take your diabetes with you. Take your self-care along, too.
  • It is always refreshing to have soda, slushies or coffee when traveling. Remember that these can have a lot of calories and carbohydrates.Try to have plain coffee with low fat milk rather than the fancy Cuppa Mocha, Starbucks or Latte which can pack quite a lot of calories. You must enjoy the vacation and so even if you wish to have all these, go for a stroll after the meals or these beverages.
  • Those planning on visiting a beach, must remember to carry some cool fluids and keep the medicines cool. Those who wish to have their blood sugar checked by pricking must remember to wash their hands well before doing so. Some have alcohol while in the pool or on a beach.
  • The effects of alcohol can be blunted while in water and so many may consume more to get the “kick”. Alcohol can increase the sugar levels. Cocktails can be pretty dangerous in terms of calories and sugar levels.
  • Please do not walk barefoot however beautiful the beach may be.
  • For those on an insulin pump, have the pump disconnected while taking off or landing as the pressure changes can sometimes deliver more insulin than needed. During the reconnection, remember that small air bubbles must be removed or else less insulin will be delivered. The extreme heat can sometimes damage the insulin in the infusion tubing which can work less effectively.

Carry the following with you to avoid problems at the airport
• Some document from the doctor mentioning you are diabetic
• A document to explain why carrying an insulin pump, glucometer, lancets for pricking blood, test strips, insulin pens and the needles, insulin storage cans or packs.
• Carry enough stock of insulin
• Quick acting carbohydrates such as glucose powder.( remember that chocolates, juices may get damaged with travel and the glucose tablet may harden)
• Slow acting carbohydrates such as biscuits or cereal bars.
• Let the flight attendant know of your diabetes as low sugar can mimic drunken behavior!
• Inform the flight attendant or airlines of your diabetes status, so they know what to do if traveling long distances. They may give you extra leg room seats.
• You can also request for a special menu which comes with some of the leading airlines.
• While flying, never aim for perfect glucose control ( keep the levels between 8 – 13 mmol/L or 144 – 203 mg/dL)
• Check the sugar levels in between if long haul flights( more than 4 hours)

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weight loss

weight loss

weight lossweight

 

Weight loss
Sometimes despite the intense effort and hard work put in, the weight loss is not as expected . One also tends to notice that a plateau has been hit after a period of time when the weight remains stationary. This is the dangerous time when one may give up out of frustration and all the weight lost will be regained in no time.

Given below are some of the labels on food items and what they actually mean:

 

Phrase Definition
No fat or fat-free Contains less than 0.5 g of fat for each 100 g/ml
Lower or reduced fat Contains at least 25% less fat for each 100 g than original
Low fat Contains less than 3 g fat for each 100 g or 1.5 g for each 100 ml
Low in saturated fat Contains no more than 1.5g for each 100g or 0.75g for each 100ml
Lite or light Contains 25% less kilojoules than the original or comparative product
Sugar free Contains less than ½ g sugar for each 100g
Reduced sugar At least 25% less sugar for each serving than the original product
No added sugar Sugar in any form has not been added as an ingredient
Unsweetened No sugar or sweetener has been added
No preservatives added Contains no added chemicals but may contain natural preservatives
Low sodium Contains less than 120 mg sodium for each 100g
No salt or salt-free Contains 5 mg or less of sodium for each 100g
High fiber Contains between 4.8 g– 6g or more fiber for each 100g
Lean Equal to or less than 10% of total fat
Extra lean Equal to or less than 5% of total fat
Low cholesterol 20 mg for each 100g or 10 mg for each 100 ml

 

Some of the diets available are mentioned hereunder

Diet type                 1                                            2                                                3                                                4                                                5

Flexibility                 Yes                                        No                                             No                                            No                                          No
Limitation             no food is off limits      single food type               fat and proteins                  limited fat                              replacement meals

Physical activity     Yes                                       No                                         Optional                                   Yes                                      Optional

Sustainability            Yes                                    No                                               No                                            No                                  Costly, No

 

Diet type 1 :  DASH, LEARN, TLC, Mayo Clinic, Mediterranean, Weight watchers

Diet type 2  : Fad

Diet type 3:   Glycemic index diet, Nutrisystem, Sugar busters

Diet type 4: Low Fat

Diet type 5 : Meal replacement ( HMR, Jenny Craig, MEDIFAST)

 

DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; HMR = Health Management Resources; LEARN = Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition; TLC = Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes.
While selecting a weight loss program, it should be
• Flexible
• Enjoyable
• Balanced
• Should suit ones budget

There are many medicines and programs which claim to reduce weight. Remember that there is no short cut to weight reduction. It needs patience, support of friends and family and tremendous will power. Usually those with weight issues refrain from socializing, swimming and partying for fear of being ridiculed in public. This leads them to become introverts and they take to eating for comfort which further worsens their predicament. These people have to be coaxed and motivated into moving into a program slowly. Most of these people are fed up of being told about diet and exercise and look for short cuts. The market exploits this weakness. Remember that there is no perfect diet to reduce weight. There is must be more of expenditure of energy than the intake of food. Generally, fried food, less of salt, less of junk food, less of starch are the necessary steps. A rapid weight loss will increase the uric acid levels in many.

What causes a weight-loss plateau?
The progression from initial weight loss to a weight-loss plateau follows a typical pattern. During the first few weeks of losing weight, a rapid drop is normal. In part this is because when calories from food are reduced, the body gets needed energy by releasing its stores of glycogen, a type of carbohydrate found in the muscles and liver. Glycogen holds on to water, so when glycogen is burned for energy, it also releases water, resulting in substantial weight loss that’s mostly water.
A plateau occurs because the metabolism — the process of burning calories for energy — slows as you lose muscle. The weight-loss efforts result in a new equilibrium with a now slower metabolism.
At this new equilibrium, calories eaten equals calories expended. This means that to lose more weight, one has to either increase the level of physical activity or decrease the intake of food. Using the same approach that worked initially may maintain your weight loss, but it won’t lead to more weight loss. Some people feel they should eat more due the workout.

How can you overcome a weight-loss plateau?

b1
If  at a weight loss plateau, you may have lost all of the weight you will, given the number of calories you’re eating each day and the time you spend exercising.
Reassess your habits. Look at the food habits and work out regimes.
Cut more calories. Reduce your daily calorie intake by 200 calories — provided this doesn’t put you below 1,200 calories. Fewer than 1,200 calories a day may not be enough to keep you from feeling hungry all of the time, which increases your risk of overeating. In addition, this reduced calorie intake should be sustainable. If not, you’ll regain the weight you’ve lost and more.
Step up your workout. Increase the amount of time you exercise by an additional 15 to 30 minutes. You might also try increasing the intensity of your exercise, if you feel that’s possible. Additional exercise will cause you to burn more calories. Consider adding resistance or muscle-building exercises. Increasing your muscle mass will help you burn more calories.
Pack more activity into your day. Think outside the gym. Increase your general physical activity throughout the day by walking more and using your car less.
Maybe the weight you’re striving for is unrealistic for you. If you’ve improved your diet and increased your exercise, you’ve already improved your health even without further weight loss. For those who are overweight or obese, even modest weight loss improves chronic health conditions related to being overweight.

Whatever you do, don’t revert back to your old eating and poor exercise habits. That may cause you to regain the weight that you’ve already lost.

Remember any physical activity will go a long way to good health and lift up your mood as well. It always is good for toning up your muscles and joints rather than having to surrender to medicines.
Check weight, waist circumference of the fit of your clothes to analyze the progress. Please also remember that the weight loss may be quick initially and then it will plateau out before dropping again. The amount of weight loss per week varies from person to person and so it is obvious that the results of a certain program in which Mr or Ms A lost weight may not be enough or may be too much for Mr or Ms B. Some get bored of the monotonous diet and it is okay to cut lose once in a while. But, if it is done quite frequently, it can be enough to jolt once the sugar levels go alarmingly high which motivate the person to do better.
Exercise in any form is welcome in the quest for weight reduction. One can split the sessions to three sessions of ten minutes each rather than half an hour at one time. The post meal stroll does work well.

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Summer and Diabetes

Summer and Diabetes

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Summer is here again. Here, in the Middle east, there are just 2 seasons, summer and a cool season ( not exactly winter). The months from October to March are the months when the mercury drops to pleasant levels. The remaining part of the year is generally quite hot and dry. There are areas in the Middle East where the winter months can be at sub zero temperatures. Many people flock to such places to enjoy the temperature during those times. There are a lot of people from around the globe who constantly live in very cold climates and they look forward to the summer here to get a good tan or just bask in the sun. Vitamin D levels are linked to the exposure to effective sunlight. Though there is plenty of sunshine in some parts of the world , people do not go out in the sun or even if they do, they are covered in their traditional dress so that the exposed areas are minimised. Liberal usage of sunscreen lotions also plays an important role in the development of Vitamin D deficiency.
Sun screen lotions have been marketed by many companies. It is useful to know all these lotions come with a Sun Protection factor (SPF). This number measures how well that lotion will protect from harmful UVB sun rays. These do not protect from harmful UVA rays of the sun. If your skin will burn in 10 minutes of exposure to bright sunlight, a lotion of SPF 15 will protect from sunburns for 150 minutes approximately( 10 x 15). This will of course, depend on the skin type and also the activity being done in the outdoors. Please also note that a lotion of SPF 50 will not mean it will protect 2/3 times more than a lotion with SPF 30. All these lotions may be allergic for those with sensitive skin. Try out a small sample on your wrist and see if okay before purchasing. For effective sunscreen, douse on the lotion at least 30 minutes before going outdoors. Rub in a good measure till the white color of the lotion disappears. Coconut butter (available from the germinating coconut) is a good natural sunscreen. One can periodically apply the sunscreen depending on how long one will be outdoors and also depending on skin type. Cold yoghurt can help in removing the itching and irritation after getting sunburns. The skin becomes red soon after it is burnt and may start peeling off the next day. Many remain in the swimming pool to be away from the heat. But, if in an outdoor swimming pool, the part of the skin exposed may get burnt without ones knowledge until he or she gets out of water. Use wide hats, remain in the shade from time to time and hydrate well also help.
Tips handling the summer:

Hydration with fluids:

• Be well hydrated with non sugary drinks
• Stay off alcohol, caffeinated drinks, fizzy drinks and sports drinks
• Plain water is a good source of fluids- which has no calories
• Tender coconut water is good for hydration
• Pocari sweat can increase the sugar levels for many
• Watermelon juice will increase the sugar levels
• Take small frequent sips from time to time rather than a large quantity at one time.
• There are excellent mocktails made with seasonal fruits such as Pappaya, pomegranate, banana, berries with some milk and sugar if needed. People add a squeeze of lemon with mint leaves to enhance the flavor and cool the body. It need not be chilled to give a cool feeling. The throat may get inflammed by taking too cool drinks while climate is hot.
• Buttermilk is a healthy drink. Adding ginger or chillies will enhance the flavor.
• Dark sago seeds is cooling. These can be soaked for an hour or so and they swell to form light black small jelly soft globules. These can be added to the juices made at home.

 

Heat Exhaustion

This happens when one does vigorous exercise or heavy work outdoors in the sun. Muscle cramps, feeling nauseated, dizzy, having rapid heart rates and feeling very feverish can be markers pointing towards exhaustion. Some collapse due to the heat (called Heat stroke). This can be avoided by exercising in a cool place or indoors or before the temperature climbs up. Have sips of water to cool down, some even wrap a wet towel on their head or face to cool down. Have a bath in normal temperature water. Exercise at times when the sun is not hot- maybe early in the day or late in the evening.

Proper clothing

Wear cotton based clothes which are airy and help evaporate the sweat. Dress in loose sized dress and not using skin tight clothes.

• Carry on yourself plenty of water and snacks. Carry a glucometer as well. Do check the sugar if feeling dizzy.

• Store the glucometer, test strips and insulin in cool places. Never leave them in the car in the summer. There are even times when the medicines stored in blisters do get damaged when left in the car in the heat.

• One can use an umbrella or a wide hat to shade away the heat while walking.

• The eyes and skin can become very dry due to the excess use of air conditioners especially when the draft is aimed towards the face. Use a soothening eye drops which can be prescribed by the eye doctor and moisturizing creams to make the skin moist. One may have to use these quite frequently during the day.

• Remember to keep the windows of the car down a little especially when parked in the sun and also use screens to ward off the direct sunlight.

• Normally the water coming from the water taps or that stored in the overhead tanks will be quite hot. Some even get burnt due the extreme heat of the water. This can be a problem especially among those who are diabetic and who have nerve problems which prevent them from realising the water is hot. Scalds of the private areas are even seen when washing after toilet. It is best to store water overnight in large containers to prevent this from happening.

 

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